Wednesday, January 17, 2018

SearchResearch Challenge (1/17/18): How do I find this song that's become an earworm?


I was bicycling home when it happened... 



wasn't thinking about anything in particular, I was just out for a ride. But somewhere along the way I got a terrible earworm--you know, one of those catchy songs that gets stuck in your head, and won't stop--it just keeps repeating over and over in your head. 

For whatever reason, I could NOT figure out what it was.  I could sing it, I could whistle it, I could even play it on the piano, but I was utterly unable to put a label onto it.

Of course, this immediately activated my SearchResearch instinct--how can I figure this one out?  

Here's a recording of me whistling the tune: 

           playable m4a file of the mysterious tune 

This is this week's SRS Challenge! 

1.  What's the name of this song?  
2.  If you can't recognize it... how on Earth would you search for this tune? 

Naturally, please let us know how you figured out the name.  If you just know it off the top of your head, that's fine, but tell us that.  If, like me, you know the song, tell us WHAT you did to figure this one out.  

This is an Open Internet quiz.  You may use whatever method works.  (Just tell us your secret.)  

Just so you'll know, I figured it out (using my SRS skills).  Took me about 10 minutes.  How long will it take you?  

The good news is that once I'd given the earworm a name, it went away.  I have my sanity back.  Thank heavens.  

Search on! 


Monday, January 15, 2018

Search-by-Image with site restriction

We've talked about Search-by-Image before, but here's a nuance we haven't mentioned...  

When you do a Search-By-Image, you upload an image to Google so it can find similar kinds of images.  To do an SBI search, just click on the camera icon, then upload your image.  


It works remarkably well.  But sometimes, it needs a bit of direction--a little guidance to make your result more precise.  

For instance, you can search for a picture of a caterpillar that you photographed in order to figure out its name.  Here's the one I found: 


When you do a SBI, you see this result: 


That's all true, but not helpful.  This caterpillar is NOT the caterpillar of the European gypsy moth.  They look like this: 


So... how can we modify the query to improve the search result?  

Easy--just give it a bit of a hint--like this: 


Now that you've got some decent "Visually similar images" you can click on that link and quickly find a matching caterpillar. 



It doesn't take long to figure out that this is a Spotted Tussock Moth caterpillar (3rd row, 2cnd from the left).  

But wait... there's more!  

You can ALSO modify the query to include other search operators you know about.  

Here's a thumbnail image of a person that I couldn't identify off the top of my head--although I knew she had some kind of connection with the Rochester Institute of Technology (a college in Rochester, NY).  


When I just a simple SBI search, this is what I get (the top SERP), but if I modify the search to include site:rit.edu  (their domain), the result is much more precise.  


The result on the bottom of the page tells me exactly what I need to know.  

Search Lesson 

1.  Remember that you can modify the query in the Search-By-Image operation... including adding a site: restriction.  This is really handy for searching within sites that you know are affiliated with the object of your search.  

Search on! 




Friday, January 12, 2018

Answer: The case of the Missing Island

You think a decent-sized island wouldn't get lost..

And yet, somehow, Google Maps seems to have lost an island off the coast of Taveuni, in northern Fiji.  

To remind you of the Challenge:  I was diving in the Somosomo Strait, between Taveuni and Vanua Levu.  In the map below, I've marked both the islands and the strait.  


Taveuni Island, the Somosomo Strait, and Vanua Levu, the big island to the west.

While I was staying at the Nakia Lodge near the northwest corner of Taveuni, I took a lot of photos, including this one: 



In this photo, I'm standing at the edge of the lodge, at -16.741502,-179.950285 -- the photo angle of the this shot is about like this: 




But when you zoom in on the map, this is what I see: 



And it doesn't matter if I zoom in with the satellite view... there's nothing there, just a kind of smearing of photo edges!  



And yet I know, from personal experience, that this small island is basically due west of the small town of Somosomo.  

So..

1.  What is the name of that mysterious, seemingly missing-in-action island? It's big enough to be on the map, and definitely big enough to show up in the satellite photos... so... what is it? 


The first thing I did was to check other map resources.  Bing Maps looks like this. 




But they have the same issue--there's no island indicated there!  

I poked around for a while looking at different kinds of maps.  For example, I tried National Geographic, but they hold onto their maps pretty tightly--no freebies there! 

I also tried: 

     [ high resolution map of Fiji ] 

but many of these maps are just Google Maps repackaged, and as we know, that doesn't solve the problem.  

Using this approach, I DID find a reasonable map of Vanua Levu that shows us an island there, but despite being labeled as a "high resolution" map, it doesn't have enough resolution to tell us the name!  




That little dot beneath the "o" in Somosomo isn't a typo or drawing error... It is the island we're looking for!  

While I found a lot of maps this way, almost NONE of them were useful for answering our question.  Many of them were on similar topics, but not really useful.  Time for a new strategy.  

Next, I tried the USGS.  Did THEY have maps of Fiji?  Answer:  No.  

How about nautical maps?  I found a bunch of navigation maps providers, but they all want REAL MONEY to let me look at their maps.  If I was to sail in the area, I'd do it... but I wasn't ready to give up just yet.  

Who else might have good maps?  

How about the country of Fiji??  That makes sense... perhaps they have nautical charts for commercial ships and vessels that I could look at.  

So I tried the query: 

     [ site:FJ map Taveuni ] 

which gives me the very useful search results page: 



As you can see, there are a bunch of images, and then a number of real estate offerings.  

Okay.. let's check the images first: 



A quick glance tells me that there's an island there, and all of the maps of the real estate agents seem to have it!  

Riffling through these images, there are many maps with the mystery island marked...and given a name. Here's a nice clear example from multiple sites: 



Looks like our mystery island is named Korolevu! 

But as always, let's double check:  

     [ Koruolevu Fiji ] 

This gives us... a surprise!  It turns out that there's another area on Fiji called Korolevu... "Korolevu, on the banks of the Sigatoka River, is the birthplace of tourism in Fiji, with the Korolevu Beach Hotel first opening in the 1950s..."  Ah... we have to be careful about what we read.   

That's nice, but it's not our island!  What's going on?  I need to be a bit more discriminatory in my query.  So... 

I modified the query to be: 

     [ Korolevu island Fiji ] 

And I got THIS really useful SERP: 



As you can see, it really IS an island (even if the Google Maps insert is showing us a blank ocean).  

But now we can look around a bit through these results and find some great validation of this as the island's name.  For instance, Geographic.org tells us that this island is Korolevu, at -16.766667, -179.983333 (and when you check that location on Maps, it's clearly the same place, right in the Somosomo Strait).  

Interestingly, there's a Wikipedia article on Korolevu Island... in Swedish!  Luckily, Google Translate works reasonably well, but we don't learn much more about the place. So all this does is confirms that someone else believes it's a real place.  

However, when you find the island For Sale (keep scrolling down the SERP to position 40 or so), you know it's for real.  Do a Control-F to find Koro Levu (note that they use a space to separate the terms), and you'll see the ad: 



This is clearly the same place.  The appearance in this image is a lot like the one in my picture--here they are side-by-side: 



So, at last we've got good evidence:  The island that's left off of Google (and Bing) maps is called Korolevu (or Koro Levu), and is an uninhabited island located just west of the town of Somosomo. 

The big question is WHY is it missing from the maps?  The short answer is that it's just an error.  I spoke with a few folks in the Maps image team, and it turns out that it's just an unfortunate meshing of different images from different satellite photos.  And, it just happened, that Korolevu got lost in the overlap from different images.   

A couple of images: 

This first one is a picture I grabbed of an official Fijian map (the original of which I have not (yet) been able to find online).  As you can see, THEY know where Korolevu is.  Note also that it's just about perfectly on the 180 degree meridian (that's aka the International Date Line).  



Dan playing guitar at Nakia Lodge, overlooking the Somosomo Strait. 
Korolevu is in the channel on the left side, just to the right of the mango tree.
P/C to my buddy Audrey Yang.  


In looking at the comments, I was really impressed by some of the findings.  

Remmij used a different strategy:  Don't limit yourself to Google and Bing, but look for more photo sites.  And... Remmij found another mapping site--Wego.Here.com-- where the photos were (mostly) successfully tiled together to show Korolevu.   They clearly have one photo-tile that's not the best choice for that section of Taveuni... 

Image of Korolevu by Wego.Here

Fred and Jon (the Unknown) did a different smart approach with the query by creating a query with the basics of what they know: 

    [ island west of somosomo ]

and found Korolevu that way.  Sometimes the simplest methods work best! 

Luis Miguel found the amazing website by Ulrich Deuschle: his "Generate a Panorama" webtool can basically reproduce a version of the image I took. Here's what was able to create with his tool by setting the camera point to where I was standing, and setting the angle of view to approximately what the camera could see: 



And if you slide the synthesized image a bit to the right, and setting it next to my photo, it looks like this:  



That's a lovely piece of work by Deuschle.  (Obviously, he's using data that's NOT from Google. Digging into the data sources of his app, it seems that the data is coming from the NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission.  This is something worth looking into!)  


In his searching, Arthur found the incredibly handy GeoViews website.  If you know the name of what you seek, this has a remarkably deep set of image resources.  Here is the pic of Koro Levu from GeoView.Info


Oddly enough, this fantastic image is originally from Panoramio (taken by SouthPacificPhotography.com).  That's odd because Google owns Panoramio, but somehow we haven't managed to connect the Panoramio images with the placenames in Google Maps.  


Search Lessons 


Lots to talk about here, but I'll limit myself to just three points... 


1.  Just because you didn't find it doesn't mean it's not there!  In this example, we weren't able to find the "missing island" because it didn't appear on Google (or Bing) maps.  But since I had proof that there really was an island there, I kept digging.  Sure enough, other resources have the island.  (Moral of this story:  If you know something is true, keep digging. Be persistent.)  

2.  Get multiple--and different!--sources to confirm what you've found.  Since the island wasn't on any of the obvious map resources, we had to go to other sources... including local real estate maps.  Generally speaking, local resources often contain information that's not in the official content.  Of course, you really have to check those sources out, but they often provide great leads and insights.  Don't ignore them, but DO double (triple!) check.  

3.  When you don't know anything, you need a map.  In this case, we really needed to find a literal map.  But this is true for other kinds of research questions as well.  If you're looking for a name of a research area (e.g., "what is the name of a research area that deals with algae?") you might consider finding a "map" of the botanical sciences.  Here's one such query that yields a "map" of botany: 


And you quickly learn that the study of algae is called "algology" and "phycology." This is one of the things that a map is good for--not just identifying the thing you're after, but also giving you a bit of an overview of the area.  In our Fijiian map example, we were counting on the map showing us what's there, and what the parts are called.  

That's a useful skill to have--finding a resource that gives you overview and context.  

Search on!  (Perhaps with a map!) 





Wednesday, January 3, 2018

SearchResearch Challenge (Jan 3, 2018): The Case of the Missing Island


For me, one of the joys of travel... 

... is learning something unexpected, something I didn't expect, something that makes me wonder at the world, and how/why things are the way they are. 

Not long ago, I was in Fiji, diving in the Somosomo Strait, a channel that flows between the island of Taveuni and Vanu Levu.  In the map below, I've marked Taveuni Island and the strait.  

Taveuni Island, the Somosomo Strait, and Vanua Levu, the big island to the west.

Taveuni is a lovely South Pacific tropical island with remarkable diving, waterfalls, lush vegetation, and a plethora of reefs and little islands to visit.  Here's a bit of a larger view, just to give you an idea of where this is: 


That blue dot is where Taveuni sits, midway between the Solomon Islands and the Cook Islands.  It's 1865 miles (3001 km) to the closest point of Australia, and a 13 hour flight from Los Angeles.  It also happens to be right on the International Date Line, so you can walk from today to tomorrow in just a step or two.  

We'll doubtlessly have future Challenges about the fish and corals, but this week I have a different Challenge for you.  

While I was staying at the Nakia Lodge, I took a lot of photos, including this one: 



And this one: 


In both of these images, you'll see a small island rising up out of the sea.  (It's obvious in the first photo, a little more hidden in the second, but it's the same island.)  

This is what that island looks like up close as you paddle in on a kayak: 


It's your dream island:  It's small (maybe 1 acre in size), with a little sandy beach, nice snorkeling, lush trees, easy to get to from the island, etc.  

In the second photo (with the palm trees), I'm standing at the edge of the Lodge, at -16.741502,-179.950285 -- the photo angle of the first shot is about like this: 

The angle of photo #2 (above). 

Now, of course, I'm curious... and you know where that leads... 

I'm asking, because when I zoom in on the map, this is what I see: 


And it doesn't matter if I zoom in with the satellite view... there's nothing there!  


And yet I know, from personal experience, that this small island is basically due west of Somosomo.  

So.. I was able to figure it out.  Can you? 

1.  What is the name of that mysterious, seemingly missing-in-action island? It's big enough to be on the map, and definitely big enough to show up in the satellite photos... so... what is it? 


As always, we want more than just the answer--we also want to know WHAT you did to find the answer!  

I'll reveal my method next week.  

In the meantime... Happy New Year!  


Search on. 

 

Friday, December 22, 2017

Answer: What are those light patches on the ground?


You'd think this is easy.. . 

But in fact, answering a simple question like "What are those light patches on the ground?" turns out to open up a huge can of worms.  I spent waaaay too long on this (but had a lot of fun in the process).  


As you remember, on a recent flight back to San Francisco, I was traveling northward over Santa Cruz and noticed several distinct light patches on the earth below.  Here's a map of the light patches I saw.  (I actually noticed a bunch, but let's start with just these. Once we figure out how to identify such features, you can go back to the original map and start identifying other features that YOU notice when flying.)   



So... 

1. What ARE those light patches on the ground? 

2.  Is there any reason that they would be in a line like this?  What's special about this particular are that would cause light patches like this? 

To get you started, the patch on the far left of the image is at:  37.029531,-122.153212 , while the patch on the far right of the image is 37.0635053,-121.9324645

Here's what I did... 

First, I opened up Google Maps to this region, using the lat/long up above as guidance.  In Google Maps, you can put the lat/long into the search box and create a map like this:

Map #1


If you switch to Satellite view (by clicking on the Satellite image in the lower left corner) you can quickly slide the map around until it looks exactly like the map with the patches on it. 


Map #2

As you probably figured out by now, I used Google Earth to create the first original map (the one with the yellow dashed line), and when you look at this place in Google Maps, you get a lot of additional information. (I made the original map in Earth because I could turn off all of the slightly distracting city names and roads.)  

Of course, with this view in place, you can zoom in and out to figure out what each of these patches is.  

When I zoomed into the first location (Map #2 with the red balloon), you can see that it's a quarry of some kind.  



But what KIND of quarry is it?  Who owns it? 

To find this out, I did two things.  

First, I did the obvious query: 

     [ quarry Bonny Doon Road ] 

which led to some great results, including this text by a quarry fan (yes, there are such things!) which lists some quarries in the area--including the name of this quarry... unsurprisingly, Bonny Doon Quarry, which mines limestone.  

Oddly, the information block about the quarry looks like this: 


Mine name: Bonny Doon Limestone & Shale;
Operator: RMC Lonestar;
Address & County: 700 Hwy. 1, Davenport, CA 95017, Santa Cruz County
Latitude: 37.03, Longitude: -122.15
 
Mine location number: Map No. 728; Mineral commodity: Limestone.


When I put that street address (700 Hwy 1, Davenport), it looks like this place is quite a ways west of the quarry.  

Curious, I looked at the Streetview of the road that leads from the quarry to Bonny Doon Road, where I saw this: 



There's a road there, but more importantly, that's a crushed rock transport line, used to move crushed rock from once place to another. But where does it go?   

If you zoom out and look at the larger picture, you can see that the transport line goes from the quarry (on Bonny Doon Road) to the cement plant on Highway 1.  Interestingly enough, it seems to pass through another, smaller quarry on the west side of Bonny Doon Road.  



My second approach was to search for actual property information. Now that I know it's in Santa Cruz county, I can search for the county property map service (which many counties offer as a public service).   I used the query: 

     [ Santa Cruz country property maps ] 

which took me to the Santa Cruz county online GIS (Geographical Information Systems) search service.  In particular, I used their mapping service to search for information. It's a little obscure to use, but you pan/zoom to the quarry location, then click on the red "I" icon, then click on the quarry to get this information:  


Curious about that transport line, I then clicked on the map to the west, where the line runs.  Guess what?  They're connected... 


So now we know that this is the Bonny Doon limestone quarry that feeds crushed stone to the Davenport Cement plant, which they then turn into cement.  


Okay... what about those other "light patches"?  Are they also quarries? 

To figure this out, I downloaded the original image (the one with the red arrows), and then made my own Google Map to organize all of my notes (visit:  MyMaps.Google.com to create your own map).  

Here, I just dropped pins at each of the light patches (and including one extra one that I found near the bottom of the area shown).  

I made this map to organize all of my notes about the light patches. LINK to the map. 


We know that the blue pin on the far left (1) is the Bonny Doon limestone quarry.  What about the others? 

This is just a regular Google Map, so if we zoom in on the pin just to the right of Bonny Doon (pin #2), we see this: 


Based on what I see here, I'm willing to bet that this is the Felton Quarry.  Let's test this idea with the query: 

     [ Felton quarry ] 

leads to (first result!) an incredibly handy document, the Santa Cruz County list of quarries!  And, to my surprise, the first picture in that document is of the Bonny Doon quarry, with a comment that the..
"Bonny Doon quarry...  mined marble and shale for the production of cement at the Davenport Cement Plant... The mine ceased operation in 2009... The mine contains hard rock mining and crushing equipment, maintenance shop, office, rock storage silos, and a belt conveyor that travels approximately 3 miles to the Cement Plant. These facilities have not been removed." 
With this great resource it doesn't take long to find that this place in the picture above is the Felton quarry, operated by Granite Construction Company which mines granitic rock for construction aggregate.

Let's do the next quarry, working our way down from the top of that column of 3 blue pins (#3).  When I zoom into that: 


It's easy to see from the brown business label that this is the Quail Hollow quarry operated by Graniterock. That county document tells us that they (despite their granitic name) actually mine sand from the Santa Margarita Sandstone for construction and industrial uses. The quarry has a sand processing plant and bulk sand dryer. (Who knew that the sand would be wet?)  

What about the next light patch (#4, slightly down and to the right)? 


#4

The only quarry in the list that matches this is the Geyer Quarry (at the foot of Geyer Road, which comes in just from the right hand side of this photo.  


And pin #5?  Again, if you zoom into that location, you'll see this:    



The only quarry that fits this description is the Hanson (Kaiser) quarry, described as: 
"...operated by Hanson Aggregates mined sand from the Santa Margarita Sandstone for construction sand. The mined area encompasses approximately 200 acres. The mine ceased operation in 2003. All former mineral processing facilities have been removed and disturbed areas are being reclaimed to open space with a native species vegetative cover on the disturbed lands similar to naturally occurring habitats in the surrounding area. The mine is located within the sensitive Sandhills habitat west of the City of Scotts Valley."
I was curious about why this site had two names--Hanson (Kaiser)--so I did a little more digging. The query: 

     [ Kaiser sand quarry ] 

led me to several documents (fascinating reading!), but the one that was most useful was the Sandhills Conservation and Management Plan (2004) that explicitly mentions Kaiser's Felton sand quarry and the Quail Hollow quarry as having sand from: 
... the marine deposits of the Santa Margarita formation that give rise to the unique sandhills communities also provide sand that is a highly valued commercial product for several reasons. First, the sand deposits extractable from the sandhills are very deep (Section 2.3). Second, unlike cemented sandstones, the Santa Margarita formation is loosely consolidated and thus readily quarried. Third, the action of ocean currents millions of years ago sorted the particles of sand according to their size, rendering the material well sorted for its various uses. The coarse sand is valuable for construction, as it well worn (rounded) and therefore less abrasive to machinery and cause less friction when creating concrete. Unlike beach sand, sandhills sand has a neutral pH that renders it useful for burying utility cables that would otherwise be corroded by the basic pH of high salinity beach sands. These coarse sands are also used in golf courses. 

So these three sand quarries are all part of the Santa Margarita sandhills formation, which explains why they're all in a line.  

That's 5 quarries down. Two more light patches to go. 

From that master Quarries of Santa Cruz County document, it's clear that the light patch on the far right side must be the Olive Springs Quarry.  (Google Maps handily labels it as such.)  

#6

Here, the mine is "operated by Olive Springs Quarry Inc., which mines gneissic granodiorite (granitic rock) for construction aggregate. The mine contains a rock crushing and aggregate processing plant, and an asphaltic concrete (AC) plant. The permitted mining area encompasses approximately 48 acres and is permitted to operate until at least 2044..."

There's one more light patch to explain:  patch #7 in the above photo.  Again, zooming in, we see this: 


Patch #7

Ah.  This isn't a quarry at all, but a lumber yard.  But could it have been a quarry in the past?  

You can click on the 3D button in Maps to take a sideways view of this location.  Below I've made a side-by-side illustration of the lumber yard and 2 other quarries.  Note how the quarries are all built into the sides of hills with lots of staircasing, while the lumber yard is on the flat part.  





Quarries can be built on flat land, but in this part of the world, the quarries are typically dug into hillsides.  

Now we know what everything is: 
#1:  Bonny Doon quarry (marble and shale to make cement)
#2:  Felton quarry  (granitic rock)
#3:  Quail Hollow quarry (sand)
#4:  Geyer quarry (sand)
#5:  Hanson (Kaiser) quarry (sand)
#6:  Olive Springs quarry (granitic rock)
#7:  San Lorenzo lumber yard
How would we find out if there's a reason for all of these quarries to be located in such an interesting linear layout?  

Let's look for a geology map of Santa Cruz county.  (Tip:  Such maps are often created by the state, the federal government, but are always labeled by county.) 

     [ geology map Santa Cruz county ] 

which leads us to a lovely Geologic Map of Santa Cruz county.  Here's the relevant part: 



I want to overlay this map with the original image to see if there's any relationship between the geology (e.g., the Santa Margarita sandstone) and the location of the quarries.  

There are lots of ways to over translucent overlays of images, but one fast way is to create a new Powerpoint presentation, import the image (in this case, the geology map above) and then import the original "light patches" image and make that translucent.  (In Powerpoint, you select the image and use "Format Picture," selecting "Picture Transparency" to do this.  In Google Slides, do the same thing, but select the top picture, then Image Format>Adjust Image>Transparency.)  

This is the overlapping illustration I made: 



With a little playing around with the transparency controls, you can figure out that quarries #4, 5, 6 are.  Turns out that they are part of the tan colored region which are "middle miocene sedimentary" rocks.  

What are those "middle miocene sedimentary rocks" at the Quail Hollow (4), Geyer (5), and Hanson (6) quarries? 

A search for: 

     [ middle miocene sedimentary rocks Santa Cruz  county ] 

leads to a report on the "Stratigraphy, Paleontology, and Geology of the Central Santa Cruz Mountains, Central California Coast Ranges" (a Geology Survey paper published by the Department of the Interior).  In this document we learn that there are several layers of sandstone here, one of which is the Santa Margarita sandstone that's quarried from these locations.  The stone is described as "yellowish-gray to white sandstone," which lines up with what we see in the aerial photos.  

From "Stratigraphy..." page 8, figure 2. 


Harder to see in this illustration is the location of the Bonny Doon quarry:  


This part of the geologic map shows this to be "metamorphic" rock.  If you look up [metamorphic rock] you'll learn that these are rocks that have been transformed under heat and pressure to... things like marble and slate.  (Which is what was mined at Bonny Doon.)  

Doing this same analysis for Felton quarry (#2) and Olive Springs (#6) shows us that they're mining granitic rocks, just as the quarry summary tells us. 

The geology map is the key to understanding what's happening with the "light patches"! 

FINALLY... we understand what's going on here.  

There are several quarries that tap into the Santa Margarita sandstone formation (Quail Hollow, Geyer, and Hanson).  Since that formation runs roughly vertical, it makes sense that the quarries would run roughly north-south.  

The Bonny Doon quarry, however, is mining marble and shale--and there just are not that many outcrops of this type of rock.  (The only other sizeable area of marble in the area is found on the UC Santa Cruz campus, which mined marble to make cement, just as the Bonny Doon quarry was. And yes, there's an old quarry there too.)  

Both the Felton and Olive Springs quarry are excavating granitic stone, both in small, localized areas of granite.  

So the "alignment" of Bonny Doon, Felton, and Olive Springs on an east-west axis is just an accident.  There's no outcrop of a particular type of rock that causes them all to line up.  




Search Lessons


This post has gone on plenty long--sorry about this, but there's SO much to cover!  Let me sum up with a few search lessons... 

1. Use multiple resources to pull together information.  As you can see, I used old newspapers, images from satellite photos, and even the 3D structure of the landscape to figure out what's going on.  This wasn't a simple "look up the answer" kind of question.  It was a simple question prompted by looking out of the plane as I overflew the area.  But getting an understanding of why those patches lined up took quite a bit of digging.  

2.  Pay attention as you read--you'll often find the answers to related questions in related documents.  As I was looking for information about the Felton quarry, I found a lot of information about Bonny Doon and all of the quarries that I hadn't yet realized I was looking for!  

3.  Stay organized. In this Challenge, I was grabbing information from all over the place.  I ended up creating a MyMaps map of all the light patches and quarries to keep track of them all.  


I don't know about you, but this was an all-consuming SRS Challenge.  All told, I spent about 8 hours writing up this answer.  (And I didn't include all of the interesting side-tracks I went down!)  But I hope you picked up a few online research skills along the way.  

I'm taking the next week off, but will return in the first week of 2018 with a new Challenge! 

Search on!